Climate Change: International Regulation of GHG Emissions from Aircraft
The Kyoto Protocol and the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change explicitly exclude international emissions of air movements from the national targets of industrialized countries. Instead, Kyoto is calling on the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) to address this issue. Recently, ICAO failed to reach agreement on legitimate sanctions in line with the purpose of limiting the cost of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.
On October 8, 2010, the 190 ICAO members had a resolution that sought to improve fuel economy and limit the greenhouse gas emissions of the aircraft. According to the decision, the ICO has improved the efficiency from 2% per year to 2050 levels by 2020. The framework for the use of alternative fuels and extrusion GHG standards for aircraft 2013 Recommended
The ICO also agreed to prepare 15 guidelines for the design and implementation of MMM for conditioning international air to prepare a framework for market-based policies and policies. The purpose of these principles is to try to minimize differences marketing that can ensure the air is fairly treated in other areas, are guaranteed that the aviation emissions counted only once and recognize past and future efforts the carriers to reduce costs. It encourages Member States, but does not require, until the end of June 2012 to collect IACO military projects that reduces emissions from international aviation GG and plans to report explained.
The European Commission (EC) presented an objection in the parts of the resolution citing the guidelines that competed with the European Union (EU) Trade System Costs (ETS) in 2012. I could start aviation. In 2012, non-commercial operators of EUSS and most commercial operators are aware of flights from the European Union airport that reduce GHG emissions. Commercial operators, who apply more than 10,000 tons of carbon per year, or more than 243 flights per quarter period of four months.
In the first year, the EU EUEE limit is set below 3% of the principle. This price will be set less than 5 percent below the base of emissions from 2004 to 2006. Operators are expected to reduce their spending by 200 million tonnes of carbon. Operators are charged a formula per tonne per kilometer (RTK), which is the weight and distance to evaluate, but initially 15% of the essential requirements is required. The International Air Transfer Association estimates that, according to EUSS, the compliance industry will cost at least € 2,400 million, or around $ 3 billion.
Operators of business jets have complained that the commercial airlines of EUSS had to suffer small private operators. For example, as mentioned above, some commercial operators are exempt from the system, but these discounts are not applicable to non-commercial operators. In addition, commercial aviation operators have to buy at higher percentage prices, because the formula RTK offers more free allocation for companies of aircraft and cargo planes, weighing much more than the commercial aviation flights. It will add weight In addition, the civil aviation operator system will have a significant impact on transaction costs, especially given the lower volume of loans. The general contractor of commercial aviation has to buy.
In December 2009, with the help of Air Airlines, Continental Airlines and Air Transport Association, Air Airlines called for a judicial review in the UK courts, denying their involvement in the ESS EU. The airlines say the EU has no way of organizing flights from the United States. On 20 January 2010, the United Kingdom referred the judgment of the European Court of Justice to the General Court. The suite is still out
The United Nations Association intends to continue with the ETS staff as it concerns aviation. The fact is that the EC believes that its plan has gone through completely, because the association with the 15 principles of the SMMM and members of the ICOO refusal undertakes to join the language, requiring a different agreement states before applying ESS to the EU their airlines.